A thesis submitted for P.H.D
Relations between the Arab Countries
And the Republic of South Africa
After the Apartheid
Research offer to branch for researches and political science in Unisa University
For P.H.D in Political Science
Professor: :Dirk Kotze
Faculty of Economic & political
Relations between the Arab Countries
And the Republic of South Africa
After the Apartheid
Relations between the Arab countries and the Republic of South Africa before apartheid were characterized with tension and lack of any diplomatic, economic or cultural relations between these countries on the one hand, and the Republic of South Africa on the other. Although the relations between the Arab countries and African countries that were solid since the Arabs' propagation of Islam and extension of their influence to these countries, to the collapse of the Ottoman State after the World War I in 1914 AD. However, these relations disappeared after the European colonization of all these Arab and African countries. The Republic of South Africa was the share of the Netherlands and Portugal after the Cape of Good Hope road was discovered by Vasco De Gamma. However, it suffered the English colonization later one after the defeat of the Dutch by them in the famous Al Bour Battle. The Republic of South Africa gained its independence in 1948 and was governed by the government of the white minority (Afrikaans) who are of Dutch origins after the white English. This was called the Apartheid Government. Their regime was undemocratic under a society that suffers deed divisions that were supported by the international situation in the period of Cold War between the two camps.
Reaching common solutions to the problem with the remaining ethnicities in South Africa. This situation approximated the civil war because of the system of ethnic segregation, considering that the Republic of South Africa will consist of a set of black and colored ethnicities and Indians. Although being natives of the country, many of them were prevented from nationality and the parties were prevented and many of them left the country. In addition, the ethnic segregation government tended to exploit the tribal indentities between the original inhabitants as a part of the policy of divide and rule. They established states with antonations for the blacks that they called (home nation). The opposition movement of the white government, which is the liberation movement, was hardly fighting to achieve justice, equality and democracy. This movement received much Arab support. The Arab countries refused the principle of inequality and enhancement of divisions between the whites and other natives. In addition, the black propaganda fed by the ethnic segregation system was refused because it would cause civil war between the black majority itself if the whites rule declined. However, the liberation movement and the apartheid system perceived that the decision of the battle for any of them is impossible under the conditions of cold war between the two camps. Nevertheless, with the end of these conditions by the fall of the communist camp against the liberal democracies led by the united states, the international situation changed as these countries (the countries of the capitalist camp) tried through the UN Security Council and the UN General Assembly tried to press the ethnic segregation system to abandon the authority and establish a new democratic regime based on the following elements.
• Election system based on complete relativism
• System that combines two legislative councils (national assembly and national council of provinces)
• Presidential system such that the president be the leader of the majority party in the parliament. He is similar to the president of the British government, but he not a member in the national assembly.
• Effect of the human rights charter to include and socio-economic rights.
• Establishment of strong and independent constitutional court.
• Establishment of a set of independent authorities to protect democracy to establish (elections commission).
Afterwards, South Africa Turned to the transitional phase to democratic rule through:
1. Establishment of confidence as a primary step.
2. Lifting danger on the blacks parties
3. Releasing the South African Leader Nelson Mandela and other political prisoners who opposed the apartheid government.
4. Establishment of provisional constitution for the country in 1993 AD such that this constitution does not gain final legitimacy until the democratic elections.
5. Conducting primary elections in 1994 AD that the African National Congress Party won.
The final constitution was actually created in 1996 and was approved by the constitutional court and national reconciliation was made with knowledge of all categories of the people and the flag of South Africa represented it with the rainbow colors that symbolize all ethnicities in the Republic of South Africa. Accordingly, the National Congress Party was not considered a national party for the blacks only, many whites and colored participated in it and it emphasized the establishment of the Republic of South Africa led by Mandela in appreciation of his national struggle according to fair elections that it won. This country was free from apartheid and worked to liberalize and establish the Reality and Reconciliation Committee and confrontation of the past. This invitation to reconciliation was intensely published through all mass media.
The constitution of South Africa was known for pluralism and celebrated it whether this pluralism was ethnic, religious of minority….etc. However, at the same time, it tried to express these differences within its particular field and to minimize to the most possible extent the opportunities to express them in general government arena. In addition, the language and tribal dispute vanished after the establishment of the new regime after apartheid.
At that time, the Arab countries, through their work in the Arab League, had situations that resisted the racial regimes in South Africa. The League Board had a decision in April 1975 wherein it confirmed cooperation between the Arab and African countries to liberalize the African territories, and condemnation of apartheid and decided that these are interconnected Arab and African causes.
However, after democratization in South Africa and end of the system of racial segregation, the Arab countries began to look at the Republic of South Africa as being important African country to achieve their security that did not only including their countries, but extended to their borders as well. In addition, the Republic of South Africa returned to its African origin after the white majority system during the period of its rule tried to make it European country by all means.
Accordingly, the Republic of South Africa under the rule of Mandela turned to a country with immense political influence. It intervened in the mediation efforts to solve some African and Arab disputes like the dispute in the Southern Sudan and contribution to the settlement of the Lockerby Crisis between Libya and western countries, and it was concerned with the Arab- Israeli conflict, in spite of the date of strong relations between the ethnic segregation system and Israel, and the presence of the largest pro- Israel community in South Africa, and the case of struggle in the Southern Somalia, Lebanon, Western Desert in Morocco, war against Iraq and repercussions of this war. The emergence of South Africa after the apartheid as being strong rival to the Arab role on all economic, cultural and political levels, and this requires them to struggle to establish new organizational and effective frameworks for Arab African Cooperation.
• Background Studies
Some scholars addressed the development of relations between some Arab countries and the Republic of South Africa after the apartheid. However, there was no Arabic relation to discuss these countries jointly, and the development of their relations with South Africa. Some of those concluded that these relations significantly developed with some Arab countries. However, the study did not include some Arab countries. Others found that this relation can be developed largely after the establishment of the African Union in 09/09/1999 and blessing of President Nelson Mandela to this union which was held in an Arab country, Libya, and some those scholars included:
• Ali A. Mazrui , in his study :" Black Africa and the Arabs ".
• Azim Husain , in his study : " The West, South Africa and Israel: A Strategic Triangle"
• Chris Alden and Garth le Pere , South Africa's Post-Apartheid Foreign Policy: From Reconciliation to Ambiguity?
• Christine Goldberg in his study :"The Dwarf and the Giant" (AT 327B) in Africa and the Middle East
• Holger Albrecht and Oliver Schlumberger , in there study: " Middle East Institute".
• John O'Loughlin, Michael D. Ward, Corey L. Lofdahl, Jordin S. Cohen, David S. Brown, David Reilly, Kristian S. Gleditsch, Michael Shin ,in there study : " The Diffusion of Democracy, 1946-1994
• Philippe Fargues ,in his study : " Demography and Politics in the Arab World , Institut National d'Études Démographiques" .
• Roslyn Arlin Mickelson, Mokubung Nkomo, Stephen Samuel Smith in there study : "Ethnicity, Gender, and Social Transformation in Israel and South Africa"
• Steve Yetiv , in his study : " Kuwait's Democratic Experiment in Its Broader International Context : Middle East Institute"
• William Zartman ,in his study : " Foreign Relations of North Africa , Sage Publications, Inc. in association with the American Academy of Political and Social Science"
But all these researchers and others have not studied the overall relations between the Arab States and the Republic of South Africa from the political, economic, and cultural studies, where it remained limited, and did not care about which aspects of our study aimed at attention .
• Problem of the Study
The problem of the study lies in the change of the international situation and end of the apartheid system in South Africa. This opened a new phase of relations between the Arab countries and the Republic of South Africa after they were boycott under the apartheid system. In addition the economic and cultural relations expanded. What is the secret for the development of these relations? What is the reason for the change of the international situation and end of the Cold War as the West was no longer in need to new allies against the other camp that ended. Therefore, it removed its support of the apartheid system and pressed it to change the situation in the Republic of South Africa? Or there is another reason which is the existence of Arab African blocs since two thirds of the Arab countries are in the African Continent, especially after the creation of the African Union, and desire of some Arab countries to pay attention to the Muslim communities in South Africa? What is the extent of development in relations to 2011 the time of the Arab Summit meetings in Libyan on 10\10\2010.
• Objective of the Study
This study aims at examining the economic, political and cultural development between the Arab countries on the one hand and the Republic of South Africa on the other, after the collapse of apartheid in 1996, since there is no detailed study that examined this development during this period.
• Importance of the Study
The importance of the study lies in the fact that we are in a need to further political studies to contribute to the examination of indicators of the development of relations between the other countries on the one hand and the Republic of South Africa on the other, because there is an interdependent relation between these countries and the Republic of the South Africa which passed a long distance in economic, technological, cultural and scientific development under the rule of whites. These countries can benefit the potentials of this country. In addition, the energy sources in the world are in the Arab countries, in addition to the strategic position of these countries in the world. This dependence will reduce the tensions among the countries andjhkmb will replace the tensions by connections, blocs and approximation of views among the relevant countries and date with the European West and these Arab countries which are close to the European countries. Under the emergence of new international blocs and weak position of the nation state, the development of these relations will positively affect every party.
• Hypothesis of the Study
The study supposes that there is a positive development of the relations between the Arab countries on the one hand and the Republic of South Africa after the apartheid on the other. This development includes the political, economic and cultural fields. According to this hypothesis, the study tries to answer many questions as follows:
1. What is the extent of political, economic and cultural development that happened between the Arab countries on the one hand and the Republic of South Africa after apartheid on the other?
2. Was this development a result of certain political conditions- end of the cold war and emergency of the monopolar system, and therefore end of the apartheid system, or real desire to establish new relations that relies on the interdependence and common economic interests?
3. What is the future of relations between the Arab countries and the Republic of South Africa under the current international developments (African union, Arab African summit, establishment of Arab African space…etc.)
• Main Definitions of the Study
1- Apartheid: a word meaning segregation in the Afrikaans language (word similar to the roots "hood" and "apart" in English). The word expresses the legal system of racial segregations imposed by the national party in South Africa between 1948 and the early 1994. Apartheid began in South Africa at the time of colonization, but racial segregation was not proposed as official policy until the general elections in 1948. The new law classified the populations to ethnic groups ("white", "black", "colored", "Indian"), and the residential areas were separated through the compulsory deportation operations. The blacks were deprived from nationality since 1958, and they have become associates under law to one percent of the zones divided on tribal basis to be managed by autonomy. These areas were called Bantustans, and they have become four areas including nominally independent states. The government has made racial segregation in education and medical care and other general services. The blacks were provided with services lesser than those provided to the white. This segregation aroused large interior resistance in South Africa, and series of protestations and popular uprisings were launched against the racial system to prohibit opposition and imprison the leaders who oppose racial segregation. With the extension of disorders and increase of their violence, the state institutions responded with the increase of oppression and violation, and the reforms made to the racial system in the eighties did not manage to reduce the increasing opposition. President Frederick William De Clerk initiated negotiations to set a limit to the racial segregation system, which led to multiethnic elections in 1994 that the African national congress party, led by Mandela, won( ).
2- Cold War: a term used to describe the state of conflict, tension and competition between the United States and the Soviet Union (U.S.S.R) and their allies in the mid forties to the early seventies.
During that period, resemblance between the two great powers appeared during the military coalitions and the propaganda and development of weapons, industrial progress, development of technology and space competition. The two powers participated in huge spending on military defense and nuclear arsenals and indirect wars- using mediator. Under the lack of announced war between the United States and the Soviet Union, the two powers participated in military building operations and political conflicts for support. Although the United States and Soviet Union were allies against the access powers, the two powers differed about how to manage the postwar and restructure the world. During the years after the war, there spread the cold war out of Europe to everywhere in the world. The United States pursued the policies of embargo and eradication of communism and mobilization of the allies, especially in Western Europe and the Middle East. During this period, the Soviet Union support the communist movements around the world, especially in Eastern Europe and Latin America and the southeast Asian countries( ).
Political Relations: The study of reactions between certain types of political entities and study of the suitable conditions surrounding these reactions.
Economic Relations: the study of economic interactions of trade and economic investments among the companies of these countries with other countries.
Cultural Relations: The study of interactions relevant to culture including arts, spiritual and cultural values and scientific achievements that enhance the relation between countries and peoples.
Arab Countries: The countries that joined the Arab League with Arabic as official language and these can be divided into four categories each of which contains a great deal of coordination. These categories include:
Countries of the fertile crescent including Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and Palestine.
Countries of the Arab Peninsula and Comoros which are the gulf countries (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Sultanate of Oman, United Arab Emirates, Kingdom of Bahrain, State of Kuwait, Qatar, Yemen, Comoros)
Arab Maghreb Countries (Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Mauritania)
• Methodologies of the Study
1. System analysis methodology: with the inputs and outputs it contains and lead to rational foreign policies through certain decisions of the countries.
2. Environmental Methodology: through the discussion of the exterior environment effect on the interior environment in the decision-making of the countries, since the changes of the international or regional system will affect the interior situation and decision making among the countries.
3. Case study methodology: Through the study of the condition of the relations among the Arab Countries and the Republic of South Africa.
• Data Collection Tools
1. Primary means: Through the review of the agreements concluded between the Arab countries on the one hand and the Republic of South Africa on the other, whether those related to the political, economic or cultural agreements.
2. Secondary means: These include the books, newspapers and periodicals, in addition to the utilization of the worldwide web (Internet) and the subjects and researches they include about the study.
• Limitations of the Study
1. Time scope: The study covers the period where the apartheid fall in South Africa by Nelson Mandela's takeover of rule in South Africa to 2012 with the repercussions of the African Union meeting on 09\09\1999 and the Arab summit on 10\10\2010, which are all in an Arab country, Libya.
2. Place Scope: This includes the twenty-three Arab Countries, and the Republic of South Africa.
• Divisions of the Study
Preface (international changes of democratization in South Africa)
1. Arab- African relations over history
2. Importance of South Africa for the Arab Countries
3. Importance of arab countries for south Africa
4. Situation of arab countries towards the apartheid
5. Situation of apartheid in the Arab Countries
6. End of the cold war and change of the international situation
7. Democratization of South Africa
Chapter one: development of political relations between the Arab countries and the republic of south Africa
1. Development of political relations between the Republic of South Africa and, the Arab Peninsula countries and the Commores.
2. Development of the political relations between the Republic of South Africa and the Arab Fertile Crescent Countries.
3. Development of the political relations between the republic of South Africa and the Nile Basin countries (Egypt and Sudan) and the African Horn.
4. Development of the political relations between the Republic of South Africa and the Arab Maghreb Countries.
Chapter Two: development of economic relations between the Republic of South Africa and Arab countries
1. Development of economic relations between the Republic of South Africa and, the Arab Peninsula countries and the Commores.
2. Development of the economic relations between the Republic of South Africa and the Arab Fertile Crescent Countries.
3. Development of the economic relations between the republic of South Africa and the Nile Basin countries (Egypt and Sudan) and the African Horn.
4. Development of the economic relations between the Republic of South Africa and the Arab Maghreb Countries.
Chapter Three: Development of cultural relations between the Republic of South Africa and the Arab countries
1. Development of cultural relations between the Republic of South Africa and, the Arab Peninsula countries and the Commores.
2. Development of the cultural relations between the Republic of South Africa and the Arab Fertile Crescent Countries.
3. Development of the cultural relations between the republic of South Africa and the Nile Basin countries (Egypt and Sudan) and the African Horn.
4. Development of the cultural relations between the Republic of South Africa and the Arab Maghreb Countries.
Chapter Four: future of the relations between the Republic of South Africa and the Arab Countries under the current international developments.
1. Future of relations on the political level
2. Future of relations on the economic level
3. Future of relations on the cultural level
1. Results of the study
2. Recommendations of the study
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